and whether prosecution would serve a substantial federal interest that could not be adequately served by prosecution elsewhere or through non-criminal alternatives. See Justice Manual § 9- 27.220. Section V of the report provides detailed explanations of the Ofﬁce’s charging decisions, which contain three main components. First, the Ofﬁce determined that Russia’s two principal interference operations in the 2016 US. presidential election—the social media campaign and the hacking-and-dumping operations— violated U.S. criminal law. Many of the individuals and entities involved in the social media campaign have been charged with participating in a conspiracy to defraud the United States by undermining through deceptive acts the work of federal agencies charged with regulating foreign inﬂuence in U.S. elections, as weli as related counts of identity theft. See United States v. Internet Research Agency, er al., No. 18-cr-32 (D.D.C.). Separately, Russian intelligence ofﬁcers who carried out the hacking into Democratic Party computers and the personal email accounts of individuals afﬁliated with the Clinton Campaign conspired to violate, among other federal laws, the federal computer-intrusion statute, and the have been so chared. See United States v. Ne ksh0,etal.,No.18-cr-215 D.D.C.. Harmto Ongomg Matter Second, while the investigation identiﬁed numerous links between individuals with ties to the Russian government and individuals associated with the Trump Campaign, the evidence was not sufﬁcient to support criminal charges. Among other things, the evidence was not sufﬁcient to charge any Campaign ofﬁcial as an unregistered agent of the Russian government or other Russian principal. And our evidence about the June 9, 2016 meeting and WikiLeaks’s releases of hacked materials was not sufﬁcient to charge a criminal campaign-ﬁnance violation. Further, the evidence was not sufﬁcient to charge that any member of the Trump Campaign conspired with representatives of the Russian government to interfere in the 2016 election. Third, the investigation established that several individuals afﬁliated with the Trump Campaign lied to the Ofﬁce, and to Congress, about their interactions with Russian-afﬁliated individuals and related matters. Those lies materially impaired the investigation of Russian election interference. The Ofﬁce charged some of those lies as violations of the federal false- statements statute. Former National Security Advisor Michael Flynn pleaded guilty to lying about his interactions with Russian Ambassador Kislyak during the transition period. George Papadopoulos, a foreign policy advisor during the campaign period, pleaded guilty to lying to investigators about, inter alia, the nature and timing of his interactions with Joseph Mifsud, the professor who told Papadopoulos that the Russians had dirt on candidate Clinton in the form of thousands of emails. Former Trump Organization attorney Michael Cohen leaded ‘uil to makin; false statements to Con ress about the Trum ro'ect. Harm t0 Ongoing And in February 2019, the US District Court for the District of Columbia found that
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